It is invasive in parts of North America. As secondary plant metabolites, phytoecdysteroids stimulate protein synthesis in plants, activate cell mitosis and possibly act as plant growth regulators. The flowers are arranged in false whorls on the stem apexes. Define genus Ajuga. It also has 100 catfish and many other herbs and spices. 8-O-Acetylharpagide, isolated for the first time from the east African A. remota, did not exhibit any antiplasmodial activity even at the highest concentration of about 500 µM used against the chloroquines-sensitive strain of P. falciparium (FCA20/GHA). Web. The chemical analysis of the extracts from different parts of A. iva revealed the presence of various bioactive compounds belonging to several phytochemical classes such as flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and fatty acids (Taleb-Senouci et al., 2009; Aly et al., 2011; Bakrim et al., 2014; Boudjelal et al., 2015; Bendif et al., 2017; Chouitah et al., 2017). Strychnos henningsii Gilg, Ajuga remota Benth., Warbugia ugandensis Sprague and Olea europaea L. The first three species are used in all the five districts while the others are restricted in some of the districts. Mixed with sheep fat to form an ointment, the herb heals carbuncles. Ajugarins II (180) (0.002%) and III (181) (0.001%) were less active, while ajugarins IV (182) and V (183) were inactive. It counters poison and the bites of snakes or any poisonous or rabid animal, when not only taken internally but also applied externally on a plaster. These same authors cite another use from Musa, of a decoction of the roots and powdered herb applied externally to a painful, gouty joint. However, to the best of our knowledge, these studies did not report the molecular targets implicated in A. iva pharmacological effects. An antidiabetic effect was reported in Algeria by (Bondi et al., 2000; Boudjelal et al., 2015; Chabane et al., 2013), in Morocco (El-Hilaly and Lyoussi, 2002; El-hilaly et al., 2007) and Tunisia (Hamden et al., 2008). (2000) reported the synthesis of enantiomer of clerodane diterpene via a furan photosensitized oxygenation reaction of (+)-hardwickiic acid [245]. From the leaves of Cornutia grandifolia were isolated two clerodanes, cornutin A (189) (0.083%) and cornutin B (190) (0.144%).347 When 330 ppm of either compound was applied to rye flakes, only one-third as many of them were picked up by the ants as were taken of the controls. The corolla may be dark blue, light blue, purple, or yellow and has a very short upper lip. Hagiwara et al. From the structure activity analysis it was deduced that trans-decalin system incorporating C-3 olefinic bond accompanied by a butenolide ring in the side chain are essential features for the molecule to exhibit antidyslipidemic activity. Its two known isolates ajugarin-1 and ergosterol-5,8-endoperoxide and a new isolate 8- O -acetylharpagide were evaluated for their in vitro antiplasmodial activity. Ajuga remota in particular is traditionally used as a herbal remedy for fever and infections, and is prescribed for malaria by 66% of the Kenyan herbalists. =Ajuga integrifolia var. It was found that 40 showed a maximum HMGR inhibition of 78.03% at 100 μM in the in vitro experiments. Rar. It should not be forgotten as a herb for respiratory catarrh, while its virtue as a diuretic and urinary herb and with regard to hypertension, prohibition in pregnancy, or its true effects on the bowel should be subject to further testing, including, where ethical, clinical trials. Oral administration of 0.15 mg/kg exhibited a significant reduction (62.96 ± 7.30%) in blood glucose concentrations compared with the control group without affecting insulin plasma concentrations (Chabane et al., 2013). Only the cardiovascular system is not mentioned, but this could be related to the lack of understanding of diseases of the heart and circulation before the mid 18th century. Graeme Tobyn BA FHEA FNIMH, ... Margaret Whitelegg BA PhD FNIMH, in Medical Herbs, 2011. Eighty-three patients with chronic cholecystitis and cholangitis received stachyglen (total flavonoids from the herb Stachys neglecta) for 3–4 weeks and it was found that stachyglen exerts a choleretic effect (Peleshchuk et al 1974). However, their availability is a problem that would need to be addressed prior to potential exploitation (Table 4). Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The same compound was much less active against S. littoralis (300 ppm on leaf disks of Ricinus communis) or S. exempta (100 ppm on leaf disks of Zea mays).336 The ajugarins have the same enantiomeric configuration, but are slightly different in structure from the clerodins, having a butenolide ring instead of the two fused tetrahydrofuran rings. Furthermore, compounds from Plocamium cornutum were evaluated for their antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive P. falciparum strain (Figure 1.17). Five groups of female rats were used, group 1: negative control group: received distilled water, positive control group: received saline solution of diabenil (200 mg/kg), treated groups: received the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb. (2.4). The insect antifeedant property of clerodane diterpenes is the most extensively studied bioactivity of these compounds.59 Scutellaria and Ajuga genera (Lamiaceae) produce some of the most potent clerodane antifeedants. Plants observed not to be taken by raids of the leaf-cutter Acromyrmex octospinosus in Panama were selected. It appears only in those authors drawing from Musa, here Dalechamps, Bauhin, the Old English Herbarium, the Salernitan herbal and Parkinson, who sources Bauhin. Azucena Gonzalez-Coloma, ... Braulio M. Fraga, in Comprehensive Natural Products II, 2010, Clerodane diterpenoids have been found in hundreds of plant species from a number of different families. Ajuga integrifolia has a wide native range, from northeast Africa, through Arabia, temperate and tropical Asia to New Guinea. The plant extract may reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption. The plant can handle small amounts of trampling but should not be used as a turf replacement. The extract analysis showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids. In this study, rats were divided into six groups: control normal group, diabetic control, diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide, diabetic rats treated with Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb. The expressed juice of the leaves or the pounded leaves macerated in water eases pains in the ears if inserted lukewarm after being mixed with rose-oil. (1830) =Ajuga bracteosa var. The relative configuration was assigned on the basis of the X-ray crystallographic analysis of its acetate derivative. (1995) described the first total synthesis of 40 starting from an enantiomerically pure decalone [244]. In a recent study, 40 was shown to be the major active constituent of P. longifolia, responsible for its lipid lowering properties by us. The antioxidant effect has been proven only by Algerian pharmacological studies (Bouderbala et al., 2008, 2010; Chenni et al., 2007; Taleb-Senouci et al., 2009). Inhibition of parasitaemia was demonstrated in mouse models with P. berghei, supporting the traditional use of the plant against malaria. The structural similarity with statin like lovastatin allowed the comparison, and suggested that 40 might act through inhibition of HMGR as statins. Later, Imamura et al. Again these uses are variously transmitted down the centuries, until the external applications disappear by the 18th century. Another interesting feature of terpenes described in this chapter is their compelling ability, within a “trophic window zone”, to induce the sprouting of neurites and even the growth of neurons, thus suggesting a possibility to put an end to ALS, to treat spinal injuries and to replenish neuronal population in loci of neurodegeneration. Insecticidal diterpenes for the period 2006–08 (in part), E. David Morgan, Ian D. Wilson, in Comprehensive Natural Products Chemistry, 1999, Biological activity has been reported for only a small number of clerodanes, but it has been pointed out332 that few of those tested have been found inactive. This time Serapio repeats the use as well, as does Miller in the 18th century alongside rheumatism, for which conditions a diet drink of betony, wood sage (the hepatotoxic Teucrium scorodonia) and ground-pine Ajuga chamaepitys was recommended. Ajuga definition: a genus of herbaceous flowering plants in the mint family | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Naringin was present in relatively high concentrations together with several flavone derivatives, as was also found in other studies (El-Hilaly and Lyoussi, 2002; Hsieh et al., 2014). These resistant insects have developed effective detoxification/inactivation mechanisms. Diterpene 40 reduced expression levels of GLUT4, PPARγ and C/EBPα and also reduced Akt/mTOR phosphorylation thereby strongly inhibited the factors responsible for early differentiation of adipocytes. Engl. This proprietary Chinese formula is said to be composed of Panax notoginseng, San Yu Cao (Ajuga patantha), Dioscorea opposita, Chuan Shan Long (Dioscorea nipponica), Lao Guan Cao (Erodium stephanianum), Alpinia officinarum, Bai Niu Dan, and Dryobalanops aromatica (or Blumea balsamifera) (package label, 2005). Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb. Matkowski & Piotrowska (2006) included Stachys officinalis in their research into the antioxidant activity of several medicinal herbs. (2015) gave a concise total synthesis of 40 by constructing the stereocenters selectively using organo cuprates or tertiary carbon radical [246]. They are perennial or annual herbs with opposite leaves. genus Ajuga synonyms, genus Ajuga pronunciation, genus Ajuga translation, English dictionary definition of genus Ajuga. Nawel Hamza, ... Nicholas Moore, in Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2019. Biologically active clerodanes were reviewed in 1986, and bioassay results tabulated.336 Unfortunately, the species used, the use of choice or no-choice tests, and the way concentrations and results are expressed makes it very difficult to make close comparisons. (2.4). Ajuga means without yoke and reptans means creeping. The nodes of the stolons are also very short, which creates very dense colonies ideal for preventing weeds from growing up through the plants. Steud. It grows in tropical lowland areas (Indonesia) and also at elevations up to 1,600 metres (Philippines), whilst in Nepal it can be found up to 4,000 metres. Finally, there is a range of external uses to which betony has been put. Treatment and control of malaria have become more difficult with the spread of drug-resistant parasites and insecticide-resistant mosquito vectors. The docking analysis revealed that Ergosterol 5,8 endoperoxide derived from Ajuga remota, have the best binding interaction with protein targets compared with other ingredients and standard drugs. A large number of compounds have already been isolated from A. remota, including ergosterol-5,8-endoperoxide (6), ajugarin-I (1), 8-O-acetylharpagide (5) and several phytoecdysteroids. It showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation with an IC50 of 310 µM, approximately sevenfold less active than the standard antineoplastic agent (fluorouracil) [77]. አርማጉሳ - ትርጉም Therefore, any agents able to assuage neuro-inflammation may be first line candidates for the treatment of AD, PD and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and such agents may very well be found among the terpenes engineered by medicinal plants such citronellol from Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. Of these points is listed in the Old English Herbarium other species of betony Phytomedicine, 2011 studies did report... 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